Before jumping straight to the AI robots one must know that robotics is nothing but a domain in artificial intelligence or AI. You can’t say that all robots are based on AI or AI is applied only to robotics. AI robot is a subset of a big superset containing numerous types of artificial agents acting in the real-world environment. AI robots are programmed in such a way that they respond to the inputs by an output from several choices in the most suitable way. This ability of decision making marks the existence of AI robots over simple industrial or programmable robots.
The most popular and intelligent AI robot is a work of Hanson Robotics. They built the first AI robot to get citizenship of any nation (Saudi Arab). We can call it the most advanced AI robot at the present while further innovations are being tested and applied.
Sophia, the robot was also invited to Jimmy Fallon’s show. Sophia is also a celebrity now.
Philosophy Of AI
John McCarthy is a name that you are bound to mention wherever you use the world AI. He was the father of artificial intelligence. John McCarthy was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. He was one of the founders of the discipline called artificial intelligence. Even the term “Artificial intelligence(AI)” was coined by him. According to him, it is “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”.
Artificial intelligence on the basic level can be thought as a computer program which appears to make a decision. But in reality, a computer program can’t itself make a decision out of the box, it is bounded to its limits. The choices for them were limited at one point in time. But with the development of cloud computing, the choices have flourished and the boundaries are extended.
The AI Technique
In most of the programming languages, we use the function random(), this random function is used to get a random output from a range of choices. By iterating use of the function in a smarter way we can fool the user of the code and he will think that the program is taking a decision by himself. AI programs can absorb take up new modifications by combining independent bits of information together. This makes the modification of program quick and easy.
From a basic computer program to AI assistants like Siri and Google Assistant, the world of artificial intelligence has grown quickly. We have reached a stage where robots like Sophia are getting citizenship now. Intelligence is the thing that we regard to find high in human beings but can a machine think and behave like humans do?
Well, I can’t answer this question at the moment but I’m pretty sure that this curiosity leads us to the development of AI. The goals of AI are to create Expert systems and to implement human intelligence in machines.
Applications Of AI
Building Intelligent robots is a major application of AI that we are here to discuss in this article but there are a lot of other applications like Gaming, Natural Language processing, Expert systems, Vision systems, Speech recognition, Handwriting recognition etc.
Applying AI, we are now able to detect faces and recognize them too, digital image processing is no longer an alien concept. We are able to interact with our personal AI assistants like Siri, Alexa, Cortana and Google Assistant.
In 2000 we got interactive robot pets for the first time. The robot pets are commercially available now. MIT displayed Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses emotions. The AI robot Nomad explores remote regions of Antarctica and locates meteorites. After these came the grand one called Sophia which is now officially a citizen of Saudi Arab and can interact with people and behave like humans in every possible way.
Deep Blue Chess program in 1997 played against the world champion, Garry Kasparov and defeated him too. This year we had a DOTA match between a robot and world champions, the humans were defeated again. AI robots have started to prove that they can perform better than humans in many aspects.
What Is A Robot?
When you first hear the word robot you start imagining a human-like exoskeleton which will be walking in a weird manner and talking in sort of an inhuman voice. But it is just a type of robot.
A robot can be any physically embodied and artificially agent that works in a way to leave impressions on the physical world. A robot which can take decisions on its own is useful for us. There is a difference between the radio controlled car and autonomous cars. That difference is of being a robot and not being a robot. According to a roboticist,” Robot is a physical machine that is usually programmable by a computer that can execute tasks autonomously or automatically itself”.
A robot is a powerful word, not all the machines can be called a robot. For a machine to qualify as an AI robot it must have a certain degree of autonomous intelligence. This degree can be different for different institutions, say for example a line following robot is also a robot while Hanson Robotics Sophia is also a robot and the most advanced one too. But you can clearly see the difference between the degree of autonomous intelligence, well we can’t give citizenship to a line follower robot for following lines.
Robots were made to manipulate the objects by picking, moving, dropping etc. To free manpower and giving the advantage of repeating tasks without getting bored, distracted or exhausted, unlike humans. With the development of machine learning, robots can learn also. They will soon start doing things that humans don’t teach them explicitly. For now, we do have industries where robots are being made by robots and that is a whole lot of progress.
AI Programs And Robotic Systems.
As I have already mentioned, Robotics is a branch of AI and is composed of Electrical, Mechanical and computer science engineering for different aspects. It has a mechanical construction designed to be able to perform different tasks given. Electrical components are also present to supply power and control the machinery. And a computer program is also present that will determine when and how the robot will do something or perform a task.
AI programs usually operate in unreal stimulate world, the input is usually in the form of symbols and codes. To operate AI programs, we need ordinary computers while in case of AI robots we need special hardware and sensors, they will operate in the real physical world and input can be in form of codes or analog signals depending on its type and purpose
Components Of An AI Robot
An AI robot is constructed by different components like:
1. Power Supply – Robots can be supplied power for performing given tasks with the help of batteries, solar power, pneumatic power sources etc.
2. Actuators – Actuators convert the energy makes the parts move.
3. Muscle Wires – The function of muscle wires is to contract when the electricity is passed through it, it can contract by almost 5%.
4. Pneumatic Air muscles – It is same as muscle wires but the difference is that it can contract by almost 40% when the air is sucked in them.
5. Electric Motors(AC/DC) – For the sake of rotational movement, we use these motors.
6. Piezo Motors and Ultrasonic Motors – Same function but are generally used in case of industrial robots only.
7. Sensors – This component has the most important use which is the interaction with the real physical world. A robot uses different types of sensors for different types of interactions.
Application Of AI Robot
An innovation is done to ease humans from doing certain work or to do things that are beyond the capabilities of manpower. Robots are being applied in many fields where earlier only manpower was used.
These fields include: –
1. Industries – Robots are used for different purpose like cutting, welding, drilling, etc.
2. Military – Autonomous robots are sent to inspect areas where armed forces cannot reach.
3. Medicine – The AI robots can easily perform many clinical test simultaneous with minimal error and save time.
4. Exploration – Robots are also being used to explore materials and compounds in areas of earth and different planets where no human can survive.
Sophia, The Humanoid AI Robot
The most famous humanoid robot got Saudi citizenship. One can easily believe it to be human as its facial expressions and gestures are so perfect. It can smile mischievously, bat her eyelids and tell a joke.
Sophia also had a conversation audience in a future investment initiative where she talked about being honored and proud to be a part of the historic moment where the first robot got a citizenship.
Sophia was also presented at the UN-hosted conference on how Artificial Intelligence can be used to benefit humanity. This marks the way technology is growing and spreading to all over the globe. The rate of development is increasing.
Robots are tending to replace humans, in many industries robots are used to make other robots. Sophia herself insisted that AI can really benefit everyone. She agreed that there are cons but the pros outweigh them. “AI is good for the world, helping people in various ways,” she told, tilting her head and furrowing her brow convincingly. Work is underway to make artificial intelligence “emotionally smart, to care about people,” she said, insisting that “we will never replace people, but we can be your friends and helpers. “But she acknowledged that “people should question the consequences of new technology.”
“There are legitimate concerns about the future of jobs, about the future of the economy, because when businesses apply automation, it tends to accumulate resources in the hands of very few,” acknowledged Sophia’s creator, David Hanson. But like his progeny, he insisted that “unintended consequences or possible negative uses (of AI) seem to be very small compared to the benefits of the technology.” AI is for instance expected to revolutionize healthcare and education, especially in rural areas with shortages of doctors and teachers. “Elders will have more company, autistic children will have endlessly patient teachers,” Sophia said.
Another Side Of The AI Robot
However, Sophia herself said that robots will not replace humans but will help and assist them some people still believe that AI can be hazardous to the humanity in the long run. The possible hazards of advanced AI against humanity have been depicted in many science fiction movies like “The Terminator”. Robots after learning how to behave in the social world and getting the ability to think and act like humans can seek for powers and positions in society which will lead to a possible war between humans and robots.
Another philosophy says that we will need to share our resources with robots, like land and energy (power supply for robots) which can again be hazardous for humanity if robots look to increase their no. by themselves. Giving robots power to recreate themselves is more dangerous than anything.
There are many different theories on how robots will replace humans or will end the humanity shown in movies. At this stage, we are so confused and can’t settle on whether we must accept these theories or not. It is not fair to say that this can only happen in the sci-fi movies and not in the real world. The great industrialist, visionary, and the founder of Open AI, Elon Musk agrees that AI can turn out to be a big threat to the humanity. He says that he is working in this field and has the access to one of the most cutting-edge AI technologies in the world. And he is afraid by its capabilities.
Pros and cons exist for everything. And we need to consider both and make sure the cons are minimum then only we can trust any artificial program with our future. Who wants to risk everything for little benefits and more hazards? none I suppose.